Avicenna Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infection

Published by: Kowsar

Detection of Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin (tsst) Gene Among Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Patients and Healthy Carriers

Reza Hakimi Alni 1 , Abdolmajid Mohammadzadeh 1 , * , Pezhman Mahmoodi 1 and Mohammad Yousef Alikhani 2
Authors Information
1 Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran
2 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
Article information
  • Avicenna Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infection: February 2018, 5 (1); e14249
  • Published Online: February 10, 2018
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: May 30, 2017
  • Revised: December 3, 2017
  • Accepted: January 4, 2018
  • DOI: 10.5812/ajcmi.14249

To Cite: Hakimi Alni R, Mohammadzadeh A, Mahmoodi P, Alikhani M Y. Detection of Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin (tsst) Gene Among Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Patients and Healthy Carriers, Avicenna J Clin Microb Infec. 2018 ;5(1):e14249. doi: 10.5812/ajcmi.14249.

Copyright © 2018, Avicenna Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infection. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Fluit AC, Schmitz FJ, Verhoef J, European SPG. Frequency of isolation of pathogens from bloodstream, nosocomial pneumonia, skin and soft tissue, and urinary tract infections occurring in European patients. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2001;20(3):188-91. [PubMed: 11347669].
  • 2. Hu L, Umeda A, Kondo S, Amako K. Typing of Staphylococcus aureus colonising human nasal carriers by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J Med Microbiol. 1995;42(2):127-32. doi: 10.1099/00222615-42-2-127. [PubMed: 7869348].
  • 3. Wertheim HF, Vos MC, Ott A, van Belkum A, Voss A, Kluytmans JA, et al. Risk and outcome of nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in nasal carriers versus non-carriers. Lancet. 2004;364(9435):703-5. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16897-9. [PubMed: 15325835].
  • 4. Marrack P, Kappler J. The staphylococcal enterotoxins and their relatives. Science. 1990;248(4956):705-11. [PubMed: 2185544].
  • 5. Ruzin A, Lindsay J, Novick RP. Molecular genetics of SaPI1--a mobile pathogenicity island in Staphylococcus aureus. Mol Microbiol. 2001;41(2):365-77. [PubMed: 11489124].
  • 6. Ikejima T, Okusawa S, van der Meer JW, Dinarello CA. Induction by toxic-shock-syndrome toxin-1 of a circulating tumor necrosis factor-like substance in rabbits and of immunoreactive tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 from human mononuclear cells. J Infect Dis. 1988;158(5):1017-25. [PubMed: 3263446].
  • 7. Takeuchi S, Ishiguro K, Ikegami M, Kaidoh T, Hayakawa Y. Production of toxic shock syndrome toxin by Staphylococcus aureus isolated from mastitic cow's milk and farm bulk milk. Vet Microbiol. 1998;59(4):251-8. [PubMed: 9556857].
  • 8. Crass BA, Bergdoll MS. Toxin involvement in toxic shock syndrome. J Infect Dis. 1986;153(5):918-26. [PubMed: 3701106].
  • 9. Wilson K. Preparation of genomic DNA from bacteria. Curr Protoc Mol Biol. 2001;Chapter 2:2-4. doi: 10.1002/0471142727.mb0204s56. [PubMed: 18265184].
  • 10. Mehrotra M, Wang G, Johnson WM. Multiplex PCR for detection of genes for Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins, exfoliative toxins, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1, and methicillin resistance. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38(3):1032-5. [PubMed: 10698991].
  • 11. Hakimi Alni R, Mohammadzadeh M, Mahmoodi P, Alikhani MY. RAPD-PCR analysis of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from different sources. Comp Clin Path. 2017;26(4):823–30.
  • 12. Jain A, Agarwal A, Verma RK. Cefoxitin disc diffusion test for detection of meticillin-resistant staphylococci. J Med Microbiol. 2008;57(Pt 8):957-61. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.47152-0. [PubMed: 18628495].
  • 13. Sollid JU, Furberg AS, Hanssen AM, Johannessen M. Staphylococcus aureus: determinants of human carriage. Infect Genet Evol. 2014;21:531-41. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2013.03.020. [PubMed: 23619097].
  • 14. Kang CI, Song JH, Ko KS, Chung DR, Peck KR, Asian Network for Surveillance of Resistant Pathogens Study G. Clinical features and outcome of staphylococcus aureus infection in elderly versus younger adult patients. Int J Infect Dis. 2011;15(1):58-62. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2010.09.012. [PubMed: 21111647].
  • 15. Goudarzi M, Seyedjavadi SS, Goudarzi H, Boromandi S, Ghazi M, Azad M, et al. Characterization of coagulase negative staphylococci isolated from hospitalized patients in Tehran, Iran. J Paramed Sci. 2014;5(2):44-50. doi: 10.22037/jps.v5i2.5841.
  • 16. von Eiff C, Becker K, Machka K, Stammer H, Peters G. Nasal carriage as a source of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Study Group. N Engl J Med. 2001;344(1):11-6. doi: 10.1056/NEJM200101043440102. [PubMed: 11136954].
  • 17. Kluytmans JA, Mouton JW, Ijzerman EP, Vandenbroucke-Grauls CM, Maat AW, Wagenvoort JH, et al. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus as a major risk factor for wound infections after cardiac surgery. J Infect Dis. 1995;171(1):216-9. [PubMed: 7798667].
  • 18. Reagan DR, Doebbeling BN, Pfaller MA, Sheetz CT, Houston AK, Hollis RJ, et al. Elimination of coincident Staphylococcus aureus nasal and hand carriage with intranasal application of mupirocin calcium ointment. Ann Intern Med. 1991;114(2):101-6. [PubMed: 1898585].
  • 19. Holton DL, Nicolle LE, Diley D, Bernstein K. Efficacy of mupirocin nasal ointment in eradicating Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in chronic haemodialysis patients. J Hosp Infect. 1991;17(2):133-7. [PubMed: 1674259].
  • 20. Lebon A, Moll HA, Tavakol M, van Wamel WJ, Jaddoe VW, Hofman A, et al. Correlation of bacterial colonization status between mother and child: the Generation R Study. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48(3):960-2. doi: 10.1128/JCM.01799-09. [PubMed: 19940045].
  • 21. Baniardalan S, Mohammadzadeh A, Pajohi alamoti M, Mahmoodi P, Sadeghinasab A. Detection of toxic shock toxin, (TST) gene in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine milk samples. Bulg J Vet Med. 2017;20(3):236-43. doi: 10.15547/bjvm.1007.
  • 22. El Ghodban A, Ghenghesh KS, Marialigeti K, Esahli H, Tawil A. PCR detection of toxic shock syndrome toxin of staphylococcus aureus from Tripoli, Libya. J Med Microbiol. 2006;55(2):179-82. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.46162-0. [PubMed: 16434710].
  • 23. Kord Z, Amini K. Determining genesseh, TSST-1, can and antibiotic resistance in staphylococcus aureus strainsisolated from clinical specimens. J Ilam Univ Med Sci. 2016;24(3):31-9.
  • 24. Arabestani MR, Rastiany S, Mousavi SF, Ghafel S, Alikhani MY. Identification of toxic shock syndrom and exfoliative toxin genes of staphylococcus aureus in carrier persons, resistant and susceptible methicillin. Tehran Univ Med J. 2015;73(8):554-60.
  • 25. Chance TD. Toxic shock syndrome: role of the environment, the host and the microorganism. Br J Biomed Sci. 1996;53(4):284-9. [PubMed: 9069106].
  • 26. Kimura A, Igarashi H, Ushioda H, Okuzumi K, Kobayashi H, Otsuka T. [Epidemiological study of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the Japanese National University and Medical College Hospitals with coagulase typing, and production of enterotoxins and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 1992;66(11):1543-9. [PubMed: 1294655].
  • 27. Shimaoka M, Yoh M, Takarada Y, Yamamoto K, Honda T. Detection of the gene for toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 in Staphylococcus aureus by enzyme-labelled oligonucleotide probes. J Med Microbiol. 1996;44(3):215-8. doi: 10.1099/00222615-44-3-215. [PubMed: 8636940].

Cited By:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:


  • Reza Hakimi Alni: [PubMed] [Scholar]
  • Abdolmajid Mohammadzadeh: [PubMed] [Scholar]
  • Pezhman Mahmoodi: [PubMed] [Scholar]
  • Mohammad Yousef Alikhani: [PubMed] [Scholar]
  • Related Article in PubMed
  • Related Article in Google Scholar

Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments